The mammalian heart is derived from multiple cell lineages; however, our understanding of when and how the diverse cardiac cell types arise is limited. We mapped the origin of the embryonic mouse heart at single-cell resolution using a combination of transcriptomic, imaging, and genetic lineage labeling approaches. This mapping provided a transcriptional and anatomic definition of cardiac progenitor types. Furthermore, it revealed a cardiac progenitor pool that is anatomically and transcriptionally distinct from currently known cardiac progenitors. Besides contributing to cardiomyocytes, these cells also represent the earliest progenitor of the epicardium, a source of trophic factors and cells during cardiac development and injury. This study provides detailed insights into the formation of early cardiac cell types, with particular relevance to the development of cell-based cardiac regenerative therapies.