ABSTRACT Subplate neurons (SPNs) are a transient neuronal population shown to play a key role in nascent sensory processing relaying thalamic information to the developing cerebral cortex. However there is little understanding of how heterogeneity within this population relates to emergent function. To address this question we employed optical and electrophysiological technologies to investigate the synaptic connectivity of SPNs defined by expression of the Lpar1-EGFP transgene through the first postnatal week in primary whisker somatosensory cortex (S1BF) in mouse. Our data identify that the Lpar1-EGFP SPNs represent two morphological subtypes: (1) transient, fusiform SPNs with axons largely restricted to the subplate zone; (2) pyramidal SPNs with axon collaterals that traverse the overlying cortex to extend through the marginal zone. Laser scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate was used to determine columnar glutamatergic and GABAergic input onto both of these SPN subtypes. These experiments revealed that the former receive translaminar input from more superficial cortical layers up until the emergence of the whisker barrels (~postnatal (P)5). In contrast, pyramidal SPNs only receive local input from the adjacent subplate network at early ages but then at later ages can acquire varied input from the overlying cortex. Combined electrical stimulation of the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus and optogenetic activation of thalamic afferents in thalamocortical slice preparations revealed that Lpar1-EGFP SPNs only receive sparse thalamic innervation during early postnatal development. Taken together, these data reveal two components of the postnatal network that interpret sparse thalamic input to direct the emergent columnar structure of neonatal somatosensory cortex.