INTRODUCTION: Energy deficiency is a cause for myocardial dysfunction during septic shock. In rodents, septic shock decreases the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and glucose in the myocardium causing energy deficiency. However, the effect of septic shock on myocardial energy metabolites in large animals and human is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the effects of septic shock on myocardial energy metabolites in domestic pigs. METHODS: Seventeen female pigs divided into control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock groups. Myocardial metabolites were analyzed ex vivo by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Gene and protein expression analysis were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. RESULTS: Septic shock was associated with an increase in myocardial levels of short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines, lactate, alanine, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 gene expression. COX-2 and prostaglandin E4 receptor gene expression also increased in the septic myocardium, although the only elevated eicosanoid in the septic animals was thromboxane B2. Myocardial levels of niacin, taurine, glutamate, glutamine, and glutathione were higher, and hypoxanthine levels lower in septic pigs than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In pigs, septic shock induced by LPS caused myocardial changes directed to decrease the oxidation of medium- and short-chain fatty acid without an effect on long-chain fatty acid oxidation. The increase in myocardial levels of lactate, alanine, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 gene expression suggest that septic shock decreases pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and glucose oxidation. Homeostasis of niacin, taurine, glutamate, glutamine, glutathione, hypoxanthine and thromboxane B2 is also affected in the septic myocardium.
Fatty acid oxidation, Metabolites, Metabolomics, Myocardium, Septic shock, Swine, Animals, Female, Lipopolysaccharides, Metabolomics, Myocardium, Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Shock, Septic, Swine