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Repairing damage to the  CNS  requires both plasticity and axon regeneration. In both cases interactions between neurons, glia and the extracellular matrix are key events. Perineuronal nets control plasticity, and removing them reactivates plasticity and functional recovery in adults. Axon regeneration is still an unsolved problem. Extensive regeneration of sensory axons can be stimulated by expressing a combination of a tenascin-binding integrin and an activator, but in most mature  CNS  neurons integrins and many other growth-related molecules become excluded from the axons.