Two-photon optogenetics of dendritic spines and neural circuits.
Packer AM., Peterka DS., Hirtz JJ., Prakash R., Deisseroth K., Yuste R.
We demonstrate a two-photon optogenetic method that generates action potentials in neurons with single-cell precision, using the red-shifted opsin C1V1(T). We applied the method to optically map synaptic circuits in mouse neocortical brain slices and to activate small dendritic regions and individual spines. Using a spatial light modulator, we split the laser beam onto several neurons and performed simultaneous optogenetic activation of selected neurons in three dimensions.