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We describe the theory of a new method of optical refocusing that is particularly relevant for confocal and multiphoton microscopy systems. This method avoids the spherical aberration that is common to other optical refocusing systems. We show that aberration-free refocusing can be achieved over an axial scan range of 70 μm for a 1.4 NA objective lens. As refocusing is implemented remotely from the specimen, this method enables high axial scan speeds without mechanical interference between the objective lens and the specimen. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original publication




Journal article


Optics Communications

Publication Date





880 - 887