The many faces of SMN: Deciphering the function critical to spinal muscular atrophy pathogenesis
Boyer JG., Bowerman M., Kothary R.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant death, affecting 1 in 6000-10,000 live births. SMA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the degeneration of α-motor neurons, and lower limb and proximal muscle weakness and wasting. SMA is the result of the deletion of or mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN)1 gene. Currently, our understanding of how loss of the widely expressed SMN leads to the selective pathogenesis observed in SMA is limited. Here, we discuss the known nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of the SMN protein and how they relate to the SMA pathology reported in motor neurons, striated muscle and at neuromuscular junctions. While a vast amount of work in various cell and animal models has increased our knowledge of the many functions of the SMN protein, we have yet to come to a full understanding of which role(s) are central to SMA pathogenesis. © 2010 Rashmi Kothary.