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During the splicing reaction, the 5' intron end is joined to the branchpoint nucleotide, selecting the next exon to incorporate into the mature RNA and forming an intron lariat, which is excised. Despite a critical role in gene splicing, the locations and features of human splicing branchpoints are largely unknown. We use exoribonuclease digestion and targeted RNA-sequencing to enrich for sequences that traverse the lariat junction and, by split and inverted alignment, reveal the branchpoint. We identify 59,359 high-confidence human branchpoints in >10,000 genes, providing a first map of splicing branchpoints in the human genome. Branchpoints are predominantly adenosine, highly conserved, and closely distributed to the 3' splice site. Analysis of human branchpoints reveals numerous novel features, including distinct features of branchpoints for alternatively spliced exons and a family of conserved sequence motifs overlapping branchpoints we term B-boxes, which exhibit maximal nucleotide diversity while maintaining interactions with the keto-rich U2 snRNA. Different B-box motifs exhibit divergent usage in vertebrate lineages and associate with other splicing elements and distinct intron-exon architectures, suggesting integration within a broader regulatory splicing code. Lastly, although branchpoints are refractory to common mutational processes and genetic variation, mutations occurring at branchpoint nucleotides are enriched for disease associations.

Original publication

DOI

10.1101/gr.182899.114

Type

Journal article

Journal

Genome Res

Publication Date

02/2015

Volume

25

Pages

290 - 303

Keywords

Alternative Splicing, Animals, Computational Biology, Consensus Sequence, Evolution, Molecular, Exons, Genetic Variation, Genomics, Humans, Introns, Nucleotide Motifs, Position-Specific Scoring Matrices, RNA Splice Sites, RNA Splicing