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A central problem facing studies of neural encoding in sensory systems is how to accurately quantify the extent of spatial and temporal responses. In this study, we take advantage of the relatively simple and stereotypic neural architecture found in invertebrates. We combine standard electrophysiological techniques, recently developed population analysis techniques, and novel anatomical methods to form an innovative 4-dimensional view of odor output representations in the antennal lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. This novel approach allows quantification of olfactory responses of characterized neurons with spike time resolution. Additionally, arbitrary integration windows can be used for comparisons with other methods such as imaging. By assigning statistical significance to changes in neuronal firing, this method can visualize activity across the entire antennal lobe. The resulting 4-dimensional representation of antennal lobe output complements imaging and multi-unit experiments yet provides a more comprehensive and accurate view of glomerular activation patterns in spike time resolution.

Original publication




Journal article


J Neurosci Methods

Publication Date





208 - 223


Animals, Brain, Brain Mapping, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Electrophysiology, Fluorescent Dyes, Ganglia, Invertebrate, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Male, Manduca, Neurons, Neurophysiology, Olfactory Pathways, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Smell, Species Specificity, Staining and Labeling