Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we will assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you will not see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Storage of information into long-term memory (LTM) usually requires at least two waves of transcription in many species. However, there is no clear evidence of this phenomenon in insects, which are influential models for memory studies. We measured retention in honeybees after injecting a transcription inhibitor at different times before and after conditioning. We identified two separate time windows during which the transcription blockade impairs memory quantitatively and qualitatively, suggesting the occurrence of an early transcription wave (triggered during conditioning) and a later one (starting several hours after learning). Hence insects, like other species, would require two transcription waves for LTM formation.

Original publication




Journal article


Learn Mem

Publication Date





29 - 33


Analysis of Variance, Animals, Bees, Conditioning, Classical, Dactinomycin, Gene Expression Regulation, Memory, Long-Term, Protein Synthesis Inhibitors, Retention (Psychology), Time Factors, Transcription Factors