Two waves of transcription are required for long-term memory in the honeybee.
Lefer D., Perisse E., Hourcade B., Sandoz J., Devaud J-M.
Storage of information into long-term memory (LTM) usually requires at least two waves of transcription in many species. However, there is no clear evidence of this phenomenon in insects, which are influential models for memory studies. We measured retention in honeybees after injecting a transcription inhibitor at different times before and after conditioning. We identified two separate time windows during which the transcription blockade impairs memory quantitatively and qualitatively, suggesting the occurrence of an early transcription wave (triggered during conditioning) and a later one (starting several hours after learning). Hence insects, like other species, would require two transcription waves for LTM formation.