The Anolis lizard genome: an amniote genome without isochores.
Fujita MK., Edwards SV., Ponting CP.
Isochores are large regions of relatively homogeneous nucleotide composition and are present in the genomes of all mammals and birds that have been sequenced to date. The newly sequenced genome of Anolis carolinensis provides the first opportunity to quantify isochore structure in a nonavian reptile. We find Anolis to have the most compositionally homogeneous genome of all amniotes sequenced thus far, a homogeneity exceeding that for the frog Xenopus. Based on a Bayesian algorithm, Anolis has smaller and less GC-rich isochores compared with human and chicken. Correlates generally associated with GC-rich isochores, including shorter introns and higher gene density, have all but disappeared from the Anolis genome. Using genic GC as a proxy for isochore structure so as to compare with other vertebrates, we found that GC content has substantially decreased in the lineage leading to Anolis since diverging from the common ancestor of Reptilia ∼275 Ma, perhaps reflecting weakened or reversed GC-biased gene conversion, a nonadaptive substitution process that is thought to be important in the maintenance and trajectory of isochore evolution. Our results demonstrate that GC composition in Anolis is not associated with important features of genome structure, including gene density and intron size, in contrast to patterns seen in mammal and bird genomes.