Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we will assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you will not see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: A clinically isolated syndrome compatible with demyelination (CIS) is the initial presentation for the majority of people that go on to develop multiple sclerosis (MS). There has previously been little work examining the effect of gender on the development and progression of CIS. METHODS: Data from observational studies of CIS were used. In total, 33 suitable studies with 4732 subjects were identified. RESULTS: The overall relative risk (RR) of CIS in females compared with males was 2.12 (95% CI 1.94-2.32). The RR of females developing MS following CIS was 1.20 (95% CI 0.98-1.46) compared with males. CONCLUSIONS: These data imply that the gender bias seen in MS is caused by factors acting early in the disease process.

Original publication




Journal article


Mult Scler

Publication Date





600 - 604


Chi-Square Distribution, Demyelinating Diseases, Disease Progression, Female, Humans, Male, Multiple Sclerosis, Odds Ratio, Prognosis, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Time Factors