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The development of computer models of heart cells is used to illustrate the interaction between simulation and experimental work. At each stage, the reasons for new models are explained, as are their defects and how these were used to point the way to successor models. As much, if not more, was learnt from the way in which models failed as from their successes. The insights gained are evident in the most recent developments in this field, both experimental and theoretical. The prospects for the future are discussed.


Journal article


Novartis Found Symp

Publication Date





182 - 194


Animals, Calcium, Computer Simulation, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Heart, Humans, Ion Pumps, Ions, Models, Anatomic, Models, Biological, Potassium, Time Factors