Mutations of the same conserved glutamate residue in NBD2 of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunit of the KATP channel can result in either hyperinsulinism or neonatal diabetes.
Männikkö R., Flanagan SE., Sim X., Segal D., Hussain K., Ellard S., Hattersley AT., Ashcroft FM.
OBJECTIVE: Two novel mutations (E1506D, E1506G) in the nucleotide-binding domain 2 (NBD2) of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP) channel) sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) subunit were detected heterozygously in patients with neonatal diabetes. A mutation at the same residue (E1506K) was previously shown to cause congenital hyperinsulinemia. We sought to understand why mutations at the same residue can cause either neonatal diabetes or hyperinsulinemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Neonatal diabetic patients were sequenced for mutations in ABCC8 (SUR1) and KCNJ11 (Kir6.2). Wild-type and mutant K(ATP) channels were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied with electrophysiological methods. RESULTS: Oocytes expressing neonatal diabetes mutant channels had larger resting whole-cell K(ATP) currents than wild-type, consistent with the patients' diabetes. Conversely, no E1506K currents were recorded at rest or after metabolic inhibition, as expected for a mutation causing hyperinsulinemia. K(ATP) channels are activated by Mg-nucleotides (via SUR1) and blocked by ATP (via Kir6.2). All mutations decreased channel activation by MgADP but had little effect on MgATP activation, as assessed using an ATP-insensitive Kir6.2 subunit. Importantly, using wild-type Kir6.2, a 30-s preconditioning exposure to physiological MgATP concentrations (>300 µmol/L) caused a marked reduction in the ATP sensitivity of neonatal diabetic channels, a small decrease in that of wild-type channels, and no change for E1506K channels. This difference in MgATP inhibition may explain the difference in resting whole-cell currents found for the neonatal diabetes and hyperinsulinemia mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the same residue can cause either hyperinsulinemia or neonatal diabetes. Differentially altered nucleotide regulation by NBD2 of SUR1 can explain the respective clinical phenotypes.