Parkinson's disease and primate research: past, present, and future.
Pereira EA., Aziz TZ.
Scientific research involving non-human primates has contributed towards many advances in medicine and surgery. This review discusses its role in the progress made towards our understanding of Parkinson's disease and its treatment. Established medical treatments like dopamine agonists continue to need primate models to assess their efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action. The recently developed treatment of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus required validation in primates before entering the clinic. Controversies surrounding future treatments such as gene therapy show the need for properly evaluated preclinical research using appropriate animal models before progression to clinical trials. Research on primates has played--and continues to play--a crucial part in deepening our understanding of Parkinson's disease, improving current therapies, and developing new treatments that are both safe and effective. In animal research, the "three Rs" of humane technique--reduction, refinement, and replacement--should be adhered to.