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The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





520 - 562


Animals, Base Composition, Chromosomes, Mammalian, Conserved Sequence, CpG Islands, Evolution, Molecular, Gene Expression Regulation, Genes, Genetic Variation, Genome, Genome, Human, Genomics, Humans, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Models, Animal, Multigene Family, Mutagenesis, Neoplasms, Physical Chromosome Mapping, Proteome, Pseudogenes, Quantitative Trait Loci, RNA, Untranslated, Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Selection, Genetic, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Sex Chromosomes, Species Specificity, Synteny