Extracellular matrix formation and mineralization on a phosphate-free porous bioactive glass scaffold using primary human osteoblast (HOB) cells.
Jones JR., Tsigkou O., Coates EE., Stevens MM., Polak JM., Hench LL.
Sol-gel derived bioactive glasses of the 70S30C (70mol% SiO2, 30mol% CaO) composition have been foamed to produce 3D bioactive scaffolds with hierarchical interconnected pore morphologies similar to trabecular bone. The aim of this study was to investigate primary human osteoblast response to porous bioactive glass scaffolds. The scaffolds supported osteoblast growth and induced differentiation, within the 3-week culture period, as depicted by enhanced ALPase enzymatic activity, without the addition of supplementary factors such as ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. This is the first time this has been observed on a bioactive glass that does not contain phosphate. Deposition of extracellular matrix was also confirmed by enhanced production of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type I. SEM showed indications of mineralized bone nodule formation without the addition of growth factors. The 70S30C bioactive glass scaffolds therefore fulfil many of the criteria for an ideal scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications.