Sodium (23Na) MRI of the Kidney: Experimental Protocol.
Grist JT., Hansen ES., Zöllner FG., Laustsen C.
Sodium handling is a key physiological hallmark of renal function. Alterations are generally considered a pathophysiologic event associated with kidney injury, with disturbances in the corticomedullary sodium gradient being indicative of a number of conditions. This experimental protocol review describes the individual steps needed to perform 23Na MRI; allowing accurate monitoring of the renal sodium distribution in a step-by-step experimental protocol for rodents.This chapter is based upon work from the PARENCHIMA COST Action, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This experimental protocol chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the basic concept and data analysis.